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Adolescence et motivation scolaire : une histoire compliquee

Posted on December 10, 2017 at 3:35 PM


Premier motif de consultation d’un coach scolaire,

le manque de motivation pour le travail scolaire

est une des grandes constantes de l’adolescence.

Ce manque de motivation qui survient généralement de façon brutale et inattendue entraîne rapidement un fléchissement des résultats qui inquiète à juste titre les parents parfaitement conscients des dangers que cela comporte. Leur réaction oscille alors entre exaspération, punition ou renoncement sans que ne se manifeste aucun signe d’amélioration. Désemparés, ils ne savent plus comment réagir face à un adolescent qui semble incapable de faire ce qu’il faut pour réussir correctement, devant son énorme résistance à l’effort et son manque d’intérêt pour tout ce qui a un rapport avec l’école, d’autant que cette attitude peut tout à fait succéder à une période de scolarité satisfaisante. Cette situation, lorsqu’elle s’éternise -et comment pourrait-il en être autrement- induira immanquablement à court terme des répercussions sur l’harmonie familiale en générant des conflits non seulement entre parents et enfants mais parfois aussi entre parents qui peuvent se trouver en désaccord sur la marche à suivre devant le comportement de leur enfant mais surtout est porteuse en germe de nombre de risques pour le devenir de l’adolescent concerné.

Deux cas de figure sont à prendre en compte :

Il arrive que cette panne de motivation et ce fléchissement scolaire soient réactionnels à des événements extérieurs : maladie d’un parent ou de l’enfant lui-même, décès d’un proche, séparation parentale, rupture amoureuse ou d'amitié, déménagement, ...

Mais bien souvent elle s'inscrit simplement dans un processus d'adolescence, caractérisé par les transformations corporelles de la puberté et les remaniements psychiques qui vont avec :

La puberté les métamorphose. En quelques mois garçons et filles se retrouvent avec 15 cm de plus et un corps dans lequel ils ont du mal à se reconnaître et qu’ils peinent à apprivoiser. Il faut dire que bien souvent le comportement des adultes -fait d’incompréhension- à leur égard ne les aide guère à se construire.

Ces changements physiologiques et psychologiques vont induire l’apparition de nouvelles valeurs, un changement dans l’ordre des priorités et des centres d’intérêt et donc la mise en place de nouveaux comportements adaptés à ce nouvel état.

Dans le même temps, la peur des changements qui arrivent, de l’inconnu qui se profile provoquent soit une inhibition paralysante, un blocage, un repli sur soi-¬même soit au contraire un comportement teinté d’exubérance voire de prise de risque hautement affiché et revendiqué.

Le réaménagement des liens aux figures parentales de l’enfance fait partie des processus à l’oeuvre. Il faut prouver aux parents que l’on a grandi, que l’on s’est affranchi, que l’on est devenu maître de sa vie:

Dans ce contexte, travailler en classe n’est plus du tout d’actualité ! Satisfaire les parents, la maîtresse, ... ne sont plus un facteur essentiel de leur motivation scolaire comme cela l’était dans leur enfance !

Afin de faire renaître l’envie d’apprendre

Il est  vital de trouver de nouveaux facteurs de motivation en phase avec leurs valeurs du moment

puis d’identifier et d’activer les bons leviers .

Ce sera tout le travail du coach après avoir aidé l’adolescent à procéder à une distanciation raisonnable entre son travail et ses parents notamment lorsque, parce que l’effort a été laborieux, les parents ont été étroitement associés à la question scolaire : s’en détourner, c’est perdre leur soutien, mais continuer sur le même mode c’est risquer de ne pas grandir…

Ce tiers apportera à l’adolescent le soutien qui lui fait défaut mais qu’il n’ose plus revendiquer. Il est comme une main tendue au nageur qui va se noyer. A la fois professionnel qualifié de la psychologie de l’adolescence avec ses différents stades et praticien reconnu du système scolaire, il sera le support structurant et rassurant qui va lui redonner le sens des études et la motivation qu'il avait perdus.

Sans recours à un coach scolaire, le risque est grand de voir s’installer chez l’adolescent une conduite de sabordage caractérisée par un refus à fournir des efforts, à s’impliquer un tant soit peu sans garantie de succès car cela les confronterait à leurs limites et à leur défaillance. On ne fait rien car on a ainsi une excuse non dévalorisante pour avoir raté !

Si rien n’a été mis ne place pour combattre cette démotivation,

pourraient survenir alors décrochage scolaire

puis déscolarisation précoce synonyme d’une sortie du système scolaire sans diplôme

avec toutes les conséquences néfastes que l'on peut aisément imaginer.

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